The Heidegger Dictionary (Bloomsbury Philosophy Dictionaries)

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Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. The Heidegger Dictionary is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the world of Martin Heidegger, arguably the most important and influential European thinker of the twentieth century. Meticulously researched and extensively cross-referenced, this unique book covers all his major works, ideas and influences and provides a firm grounding in the central themes of Heidegger' The Heidegger Dictionary is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the world of Martin Heidegger, arguably the most important and influential European thinker of the twentieth century.

Meticulously researched and extensively cross-referenced, this unique book covers all his major works, ideas and influences and provides a firm grounding in the central themes of Heidegger's thought. Students will discover a wealth of useful information, analysis and criticism.

A-Z entries include clear definitions of all the key terms used in Heidegger's writings and detailed synopses of his key works. It covers everything that is essential to a sound understanding of Heidegger's philosophy, offering clear explanations of often complex terminology. The Heidegger Dictionary is the ideal resource for anyone reading or studying Heidegger or Modern European Philosophy more generally.

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Kindle Edition , pages. Published January 17th by Bloomsbury Academic first published January 1st More Details Other Editions 5. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The Heidegger Dictionary , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about The Heidegger Dictionary. Lists with This Book. While being-here and the human being, though conceptually distinct, overlap in SZ, Heidegger develops their contrast in later works, contending that we, as humans, are not yet here da , i. In SZ the Da of Dasein is conceived as the clearing or the open, but as such it falls victim to its transitional role between metaphysical and post-metaphysical thinking SZ Thus, for example, as the condition of the possibility of the presence and absence of entities, it serves a function similar to a transcendental subjectivity, a point of convergence with Kant that Heidegger exploits but later recog- nizes as metaphysical and thus fatal ; , Historical being as the appro- priating event appropriates Dasein, opening it up to its truth as the clearing that allows beings to be present to Dasein, but remains itself hidden.

In the Zollikon Seminars, Heidegger emphasizes that Dasein must always be seen as being-in- the-world, concerned with things and caring for others, standing in the clearing for the sake of what concerns it and what it encounters. Everyday being-in-the-world is fallen, seductive, sedating and alienating SZ ff.

It is in terms of being-in-the-world that Dasein is fated, worldly, and historical SZ , f, , Being-with Mitsein Dasein is with others from the outset, indeed, so much so that, for the most part, it does not distinguish itself from them. The world of Dasein is a shared world Mitwelt. Insofar as it is encoun- tered within the world by another Dasein, it is being-here-with it Mitdasein.

Being-with and the facticity of being-with-one-another are not grounded in the co-occurrence of several subjects on-hand. Others can encounter Dasein as being-here-with them only insofar as Dasein of its own has the essential structure of being-with. In contrast to concern Besorgen for what is handy, i. The possibilities of solicitude lie within a spectrum between two extremes. There he targets Darwinist and mechanist approaches to organisms as well as neo-vitalist approaches based upon Kantian purposiveness or Aristotelian entelechy.

What machines and organisms have in common is a kind of service- ability. In other words, it is not that an animal can see because it has eyes but rather that it has eyes because it can see. As for versions of biologism, they are all forms of metaphysics, the metaphysics of power and machination f; And later he asserts that Dasein is factically split off into a body, by virtue of its thrownness.

Time is oppres- sively prolonged in three distinct ways, yielding three forms of boredom: being bored by something, being bored or, more literally, boring ourselves with something, and profound boredom. In each case, the time that we are ourselves is neither filled-up nor fulfilling. Thus, we may be bored by a train station, vainly trying to pass the time by counting its windows, as we wait for the next train. We may also be bored with a dinner party, where in contrast to the first form of boredom the entire event is a way for us to kill time our time.

In this second form of boredom, the emptiness of the time springs, not from some object or setting e. In profound boredom, we are bored by everything, including ourselves, and nothing in the world matters.

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The time of beings as a whole is startlingly empty. Whereas the time that stands still when we are bored by something or by others in the first two forms is some relative time period, in profound boredom it is time as a whole that is boring. Yet, like any refusal, this sweeping refusal of significance also reveals unexploited possibilities and brings Dasein face to face with its self not its ego and its temporal freedom.

Whereas the moment cannot be heard in the past-times marking the first two forms of boredom, the third form compels us to hear it. To build a bridge, for example, is to erect a distinctive place where earth and sky, divinities and mortals come together as one, and where that fourfold unity directs the process of building, its erection of places and arrangement of spaces.

Care Sorge Being matters to Dasein. This mattering shows up in the way that Dasein is always ahead of itself as already being-in-the-world. It exists, projecting possibilities for itself, but always factically, i. Absorbed in the world of its concerns, Dasein also finds itself always already alongside what is handy within-the- world. This being fulfills [realizes] the meaning of the term care, that is used [here] in a purely ontological-existential sense. Because Dasein is essentially care Sorge , it has concerns Besorgen —i.

It is a complex but fundamental existential—ontological phenomenon, more basic than any theory or practice, any willing or wishing, any drive or urge. Being towards death is grounded in care, and the call of conscience is the call of care, a call out of the uncanniness of being-in-the-world SZ , , f, And yet care can be inauthentic or authentic. Beginning in the two engaged in a sustained correspondence, intriguing and even puzzling particularly for what was left unsaid between the thinker who embraced National Socialism and the poet who could not stop re-living its horrors.

Nonetheless, two cordial meetings ensued. Their last encounter, again preceded by hospitalizations of Celan, was on March 26 at a public poetry reading in Freiburg.

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On the night of April 19—20 Celan took his life. We are hardly blind to implements when using them. Despite the closeness of the German words for clearing Lichtung and light Licht , a glade can obviously be quite dark. The clearing underlies metaphysics, without being thought itself, though Parmenides, a pre-metaphysical thinker, experiences it as, and names it, aletheia. Since any possible claims on what is binding are grounded in this co-belonging, the importance of thinking aletheia as the clearing is patent. The fact that philosophy as metaphysics thinks what the clearing affords but not the clearing itself is due to the fact that the clearing is not only a clearing of what is present but also a clearing of the self-concealing presence A human being only is by moving from herself to something completely other than herself, i.

Both, clearing and hiddenness, are not two but the essential unfolding of the one, the truth itself.

Conscience Gewissen Conscience is the silent call of Dasein from its They-self, i. To the extent that Dasein is constantly listening to the din of the They, the call of conscience interrupts it. Conscience in this sense is an existential, a primordial phenomenon of being-here, a way Dasein discloses itself to itself. Neither God nor some anthropological, biological, or psychological factor, this one calling is Dasein itself. The call comes from the uncanniness of being thrown as an individual self into the world, something not determinable by anything worldly.

Hence, insofar as it is ordinarily wrapped up in the They, the call comes as alien to Dasein. The call of conscience in the existential sense summons Dasein to the fact that it is guilty in a primordial sense, not by virtue of something some being it owes others, but by virtue of existing or, in other words, by virtue of something it owes itself in existing. Each of us has been thrown into the world as the sort of being who, without having chosen to be at all, individually projects some possibilities rather than others.

We are not the ground of our being, and we are the ground of not being some possibilities. As a thrown projection, situated between these two nullities not the ground in one respect, being the ground of not projecting some possibilities in another , our existence is accordingly shot through with a distinctive, individuating indebtedness and responsibility. Being thus indebted and responsible simply by virtue of existing is being guilty Schuldigsein existentially. One cannot choose not to have a conscience, but one can choose to want to have one.

Letting oneself so act on oneself enables Dasein to be responsible and testifies to its authentic capability-of-being. Conscience attests to the authentic disclosedness in Dasein, as Dasein silently projects itself onto its ownmost being- guilty, all the while prepared for angst. Consciousness Bewusstsein Beginning with Descartes, modern philosophy conceives consciousness, and so also self-consciousness, as fundamental and, in some sense, a priori.

The idealism of modern philosophy is tied to its commitment to taking consciousness as fundamental SZ 49, 62, , , , n; Through involvement in common, interchangeable practices like using public means of transportation or information and by relying exclusively upon the accessibility and acceptability of public criteria and interpre- tations, Dasein in its everydayness is no different from anyone else.

Though this inauthentic constancy, absorbed into the They, is not the constancy of the self, it remains an existential something Dasein does and discloses. Truth as correspondence is derivative of truth as unhiddenness. Curiosity Neugier In SZ Heidegger characterizes curiosity as the everyday sort of seeing that is characteristic of the way the They discloses in general.

This tendency arises, Heidegger contends, when, in periods of repose, Dasein is no longer bound to the workworld and concerns itself only with the possibilities of seeing the world simply as it appears. Exploiting the German etymology of the term, a combination of the new neu and avarice Gier , Heidegger notes the specific restlessness that characterizes curiosity. It is a restless search for the new by jumping hastily from one thing to the other in a constant state of distraction rather than tarrying among things and wondrously contemplating them.

Accordingly, the curious becomes dispersed among ever new possibilities, while never dwelling anywhere Aufenthaltslosigkeit.

Danger Gefahr By putting everything on order in a standing reserve, the position- ality Ge-stell —the essence of modern technology, the destiny of being in the present epoch—completely neglects things and is oblivious to the world, i. So, too, since the corresponding distress is also not experienced, the lack of distress is what is genuinely distressing. Nonetheless, there are characteristic marks of the danger.

The fact that millions perish in concentration camps, suffer and die of hunger, or languish in poverty are telltale signs that the danger remains concealed, because it continues to be distorted and obscured by the essence of technology, i. Another sign is the tendency to grapple with technology by technological means alone, thereby reinforcing the hiddenness of its essence and origins, while underestimating its power.

The essence of technology is historical being itself in the essential shape of positionality. But the essence of the positionality is the danger. Death Tod Every moment that we are alive, death is a constant and definitive yet undetermined possibility. We cannot somehow overtake or outrun our death; we cannot even experience it as a particular entity als Seiendes , and no one else can die our death for us.

Death is definitive as the possibility of the end of any other possi- bility we might have. Like a great love, it is most intimately ours—and yet not of our choosing SZ —40, f, ff, At the same time, it is a possibility that we are likely to ignore, elude, and conceal—underscoring our cognizance of its status as our pre-eminent possibility SZ —5.

In other words, dying is not perishing because perishing entails the accessibility of what perishes as something on-hand, ante mortem and post mortem SZ Death is also not anything like the absence of what is not yet the case—an unpaid bill, a full moon, a ripened fruit—since these are endings of something on-hand or handy. Dasein projects this possibility nolens volens, even if by way of repressing it. Hence, to be-here authentically, Dasein has to project this possibility explicitly for itself.

Anticipating this defining possibility discloses the finality and finitude of existence, enabling us to become free for it. With this freedom for death comes a freedom to understand and choose among finite, factical possibilities authentically. Anticipating death is also liberating in the sense that it breaks the hold of any obdurate identification with some previously attained or expected possibilities.

Being free for this ultimate possibility also serves as a check against being with others inauthentically, i. But in order to be able to intimate something of this most primordial connection. As the departure from beings, death also brings Dasein nearest to the nearness of the clearing of historical being f; f. Decision Entscheidung Whereas resorting to a lottery is a way of evading a decision in effect, a decision not to decide , to umpire is to embrace decision- making.

In genuinely, i. He lambasts mere appearances of decisiveness, e. Two years later Heidegger addresses the theme of decision, playing again on its etymology, only this time in the context of inquiring into the essence of historical being as the origin of the de-cision or division Ent-scheidung of gods and humans. While unorthodox to a fault, this use of the term flagged by the hyphen underscores the fact that the most basic sense of decision is not human or divine, and that human decisions are only authentic by corresponding to the primordial de-cision.

It is scarcely possible to approach decision without reference to human choice. Indeed, this reference, he avers, proved to be a stumbling block to conceiving the SZ account of resoluteness as truth in the sense of openness. This de-cision thus makes room for a further decision, namely, the decision of owning up, or not, to this primordial de-cision. That further decision is also not so much a choice as it is a wholeheartedness that supposedly coincides with thinking and corresponding to the truth of historical being. Not a culture or world-view but only the truth of historical being is decisive 97ff, f.

Nor does he recognize the need for its determination, since the cogito is certain esse certum and one with the creator esse creatum f. Though Part Two was never published, Heidegger devotes an entire section of Part One to the Cartesian ontology of the world in terms of res extensa due to its sharp contrast with his analysis of worldhood SZ 89— While Descartes characterizes finite beings as created substances, whose substantiality consists in thinking or extension, he excuses himself from asking what substantiality or the infinite, uncreated being is SZ 93f.

Only by tracing the ways in which we take up phenomena back to their historical roots is it possible for phenomena to present themselves as what they are 75f. Because our experiences are always wrapped up in a foregoing interpretive context, formed by our language and traditions, phenomenology is necessarily destructive.

Working against these two tendencies provides the structure, respectively, of the two parts of SZ, though Heidegger never publishes the second part, the aim of which was to be the explicit destruction of the tradition. The planned destruction was to begin with the Greeks who conceived being in terms of nature the world as physis as the overriding, i. Difference Differenz, Unterschied The difference between being and beings is the most essential difference.

Whatever particular, innerworldly beings we are concerned with, theoretically or practically, we in some sense transcend them by understanding what it means for them to be. In the Contributions, Heidegger considers transcendental conceptions of the ontological difference inadequate, since they cannot escape conceiving the difference between being and beings in terms of differences between particular beings. This way of conceiving the difference shows its metaphysical pedigree, since metaphysics thinks of being exclusively from the standpoint of beings.

The history of metaphysics is a history of disempowering being in favor of the limitless primacy of beings; f, The ontological difference, i. Dilthey, Wilhelm — The ontological difference is thus, in an important sense, provisional and transitional. The key to thinking the difference in non-metaphysical terms is to recognize that it is not the result but the ground of thinking 70—4. We only think being funda- mentally when we think it in its difference from beings and vice versa.

This difference cannot be represented since the attempt to represent it leads to construing difference Differenz as a relation Distinktion that we produce. The difference is instead something that we find in advance of representing. The disclosedness of being contrasts with the discovery Entdecktheit of beings SZ f, , , —8, , Dasein is able to discover entities and features of them ontic truths only because it is disclosedness itself or, equivalently, the clearing that enables the encounter with particular beings SZ , Understanding discloses to Dasein its way of being including its meaningfulness, what it is for-the-sake-of, and its capability-of-being SZ —7.

Discourse Rede Discourse or talk an alternative translation is an existential, i. Discourse meaningfully articulates or sorts out the intelligibility of being-in- the-world SZ However, language can also be treated as something on-hand in nature and culture, open for inspection like any other natural phenomenon or cultural artifact. Discourse always sorts out meaningfully the intelligibility of being-in-the-world, particularly in our shared concerns, and, in that sense, it is invariably about something.

Not only determinate assertions, but wishes, commands, and recommendations are about something. These four existential characters make language possible SZ f. For example, when we did not hear someone correctly, we often say that we did not understand her. When we do hear, it is in virtue of the fact that we already have an understanding.

So, too, when we hear someone speaking, we hear, not so much the vocalization, but what they are saying. But while being rooted in understanding, hearing also makes plain the shared character of understanding—even within a single Dasein. At the same time, being-with establishes itself in listening to one another, where hearing can lead to obeying and hearkening as well as to tuning others or oneself out. In idle talk, hearsay, and quick reads, keeping informed about what is said as such and passing it on take precedence over concern for what the discourse is about.

Whereas in idle talk Dasein overhears itself, listening only to the They-self, conscience calls Dasein silently to its self, to the capability of being that is most its own SZ ff, , Disposedness Befindlichkeit, MR: state of mind, S: attunement Dasein always already finds itself disposed to being one way or another. When we ask someone how he is, we are asking how he feels, and how he feels—his mood—corresponds to his disposition. The query Wie befinden Sie sich? The first basic existential treated in SZ, disposedness is the primary indicator of existence.

As a basic existential, disposedness is constitutive of existence generally. Understanding, for example, is always disposed; even indifference is a way of being disposed. We are typically ontically familiar with modes of disposedness in the form of moods or affects, which are accordingly originary and disclosive in a holistic way.

For example, while fearing makes up who we are, and discloses something essential about us, it does not do so apart from the fearfulness of the situation and the threats within it. A mood or affect is constitutive of our being-in-the- world as a whole. As early as Heidegger dispenses with the term Befindlichkeit in favor of mood Stimmung while retaining key features of the original analysis sketched above.

In , Heidegger acknowledges that his SZ conception of Befindlichkeit coincides with his later account of Stimmung; see This dwelling takes place precisely where mortals are, namely, among things. Thus, things built, e. Because being the presence of beings withdraws, beings are left as the exclusive standard for being 6. As a result, each epoch necessarily misnames and misconstrues being by thinking it in terms of beings or, what is the same, failing to come to terms with its withdrawal.

While there is a tradition from epoch to epoch and their succession is not contingent, they are not derivable from one another. Instead each springs from the same hidden source f; 12f. Each epoch is a way that presence transmits itself to Western humanity The process by which being presents itself as the objectivity of objects, but in essence withdraws from us, specifies a new epoch of the withdrawal, i. The appropriating event that consummates the forgot- tenness of the essence of being determines the present, technological epoch in which being unfolds as positionality.

Errancy Irre Dasein errs, passing by the mystery of being, while insistently turning to what is accessible.

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Errancy is not an error or mistake in thinking or repre- senting within some already secured region of objects, though it is the ground of such inevitable errors. Because they must be exposed to beings in order to experience the truth of historical being. Essence Wesen Phenomenologists are concerned with the discernment of essences. Heidegger is no exception, though he also argues that any such discernment is grounded in existential understanding SZ From beginning to end, his writings are replete with references to essences and what is essential.

In the late s Heidegger revisits the question of essence. For the Greeks, universality holding for many is a consequence, not the genuine mark, of an essence. Alternatively, the essence is what something truly is, what it is in truth. Thanks to this conception, Plato and Aristotle were able to identify the essence beingness of being respectively with idea and ousia. The idea is the essence of a being because it is the presumed, dominating look that a being presents and that we have in view, albeit not thematically, whenever we relate to that being.

This conception of the beingness of beings runs counter to contemporary sensibilities, where reality is identified, by contrast, with the individual on-hand here and now. Heidegger agrees with the Greeks that essence is not a concept or empty universal but what is most essential to being 30, 37f. At the same time, his rejection of the Greek identification of being with beingness in the sense of constant presence demands a re-interpretation of the concept of essence.

For Heidegger truth is aletheia in the sense of the emergence of unhiddenness from hiddenness.

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That is to say that truth is not unhiddenness itself. How one conceives essence depends upon how one understands being and truth. If being is projected as a constant presence or as timeless, essence is deter- mined accordingly. However, if being is projected as temporal, then essence is itself timely 9: ; 60f, 68f; f. Heidegger uses wesen as a verb, e. Seyn west als Ereignis, i. He also employs Wesung, e. Historical being essentially unfolds only in the moment where Dasein leaps ahead into the appropriating event 75; 7: 44; Ethics Ethik If ethics is study of the good life or of the principles of right and wrong, the existential analysis of SZ is not an ethics.

However, it does present reasons to be wary of theories of value not founded upon the way human beings are with-one-another SZ 99, Moreover, by differentiating authentic and inauthentic ways of being-with-one another, namely, liberating and domineering relationships respectively, the existential analysis provides the rudiments of an ethics.

For example, being-with-others, not to be confused with being-alongside anything else, is a condition for sympathy rather than vice versa. Similarly, the ontological analysis of Dasein yields existential conceptions of phenomena presupposed by ethics e. A year after the publication of SZ, Heidegger introduces metontology as the inquiry that turns from fundamental ontology to beings as a whole, in light of the fact that the understanding presupposes the factical existence of human beings, which in turn presupposes the factual on-handness of nature.

Yet this passing mention bears no fruit, as Heidegger aborts the project of metontology. Ethical concerns permeate his thinking in the fateful early s. Later in the decade, he criticizes the traditional equation of being with presence for its inability to countenance what ought-to-be das Gesollte and value — He also identifies the nihilistic effects of equating being with power and the will to power in the form of machination, the gigantic, and their political expres- sions Americanism, Bolshevism, and National Socialism.

Yet it is also key to human liberation, i. The supreme human action is thinking authentically, and authentic thinking consists in corresponding to a claim that being makes on us 30, , f. Acknowledging the pressing question of ethics, Heidegger notes its traditional connection with ontology.

Looking to the Greek meaning of ethos before such disciplines arose, he notes that ethos is the familiar human abode that is also the open region for the unfamiliar divine presence. Idle talk, curiosity, and ambiguity characterize how Dasein is its Da everyday, namely, as fallen. Everydayness has an obvious temporal sense. More precisely, existence is the being Dasein always comports itself to, one way or another.

Existence can be authentic or inauthentic accordingly. Existence is in motion, but its motion is not the movement of something on-hand. Instead it is the happening that determines existence as historical SZ f, , Categories are the other basic possible ways of characterizing being. However, since categories historically derive from the ways of addressing and passing judgment on what is encountered within-the-world, i. Whereas categories answer to the question of what in the broadest sense something is, when we come across a stranger we are more likely to ask who, not what, she is SZ 44f, 56, 88, Being-in, being-alongside, concern, solicitude, world-hood, the They, possibility, and sense are examples of existentials.

At times Heidegger identifies disposedness and understanding as the two fundamental existentials SZ , , , , , Yet truth is a fundamental existential as well SZ Discourse is a primordial existential SZ , , and fallenness is an existential mode of being-in-the-world SZ Existence itself is an existential determination, as are facticity and fallenness, and all three together, as a unity, make up the fundamental ontological character of care SZ ff, f, , , , In order to make the transition to existence i.

As such, fallenness makes precise what it means to be inauthentic, to fail to be oneself SZ In falling prey to the world, Dasein is in motion, constantly being seduced tempted , tranquilized sedated , alienated, and ensnared by the They. This plunge is a vortex, constantly tearing Dasein away from its authenticity, but a vortex inherent to its thrownness and facticity SZ —9. Fate seems blind only because we are blinded by the fact that, trying to fit it into our calculations, we confront it merely as the unpredictable.

For thinking that only calculates, fate must be an impenetrable cause or its effect. The holiday celebrates this balance in advance as the uniqueness that, like the feast itself, is nothing common in the sense of something used, needed and calculable. By contrast, it has is own way of remaining, though it is also fundamentally different from any interruption of work; it is an expecting 93F. Fit Fuge The fit stands for the limits under which an entity enters into appearances, enabling it to display itself for what it is.

The fit fits presences and absences together into a movement, just as a fugue fits movements together within a single movement. Fug translates the Greek dike, a metaphysical not a moral concept, signifying the way the overwhelming force displays itself, its sway, and forces everything to fit in and fit themselves to it As the dynamic interplay of presence and absence at once, the fit is a logos, a gathering in which things are differentiated and thus articulated.

Hence, they need to be indicated but in a purely formal, revisable fashion. The sense of a concept as a formal indication is less a matter of content than a matter of enactment or performance Vollzugssinn. Formal indications in this dual sense are requisite for philosophy since it is necessarily reflexive, requiring a retrieval of what is not given directly. This retrieval, moreover, is not possible without a transformation of the philosopher herself.

In SZ Heidegger employs the notion of a formal indication—but without any explanation SZ 52f, —17, , , ff. Yet the fact that we are already thinking the other three whenever we think one of the Four does not mean that we are considering how they are onefold. In order to consider how earth and sky, divinities and mortals form the one-fold of the Four, it is necessary to see them as consti- tuting things. In the early s Heidegger assigns the world a place in a fourfold relation that also includes earth, divinities, and humans By the end of the s, however, the world embraces a fourfold, historical structure, consisting of a constellation for earth and sky, divinities and mortals, something that may or may not happen.

In this unity of heaven and earth, gods and humans, each is in-finitely related to the other without being centered in any of them. The inception beginning is something that persists only as long as it is coming Anfang bleibt als Ankunft 4: ff. In this sense the fourfold remains the beginning that is still coming. Heidegger asks whether the West in this sense still exists given that it has become Europe.

The earth and heaven of the poem have vanished, the in-finite relation of the fourfold seems destroyed where everything is made available and on order. But perhaps it is not destroyed; perhaps it has never made its appearance in our history and is at most blocked and refused. Freedom Freiheit Heidegger returns to the theme of freedom repeatedly during his career. Dasein has the freedom to choose to be itself, i. In SZ Heidegger conceives of freedom in two ways, existential and existentiel, the former as the condition of the latter SZ , In order for Dasein to be authentic and, thus, existen- tially free, it must be free for its most defining possibility, its death SZ , , , f.

A few years after the publication of SZ, Heidegger hearkens back to this grounding sense of freedom in relation to the world. Only by surmounting, i. Freedom in this basic sense, i. So, too, freedom is the origin of the principle of sufficient reason Satz vom Grund that we are then free to abide by or not. But as the transcen- dental grounding of these ways of grounding, freedom is not to be mistaken for any of them.

It departs from all such grounds as the abyss Ab-grund of Dasein. A similar, albeit even more nuanced structure holds for the relation between freedom in this basic sense and truth as correctness. Truth as the correctness of an assertion or perception holds only if we free ourselves for a binding orientation, e. But this condition is only met by being free for something appearing something manifest in an open region. Not to be confused with indifference, being free in this sense of letting entities be what they are means actively engaging oneself in the open region in which entities come to stand.

At the same time, against the backdrop of letting things be, human beings can also distort and cover things up. Moreover, although Dasein, in its comportment to beings, discloses beings as a whole not to be confused with the sum of known entities , it tends to overlook or even forget this unhiddenness in its preoccu- pation with knowing and technically mastering beings. Constantly attuned to beings as a whole, it is then attuned to them as something indeterminate, even indeterminable.

However, it does so in a way that secures the hiddenness primordial un-truth that is older than any distortion or manifestation of this or that being and older, too, than letting be. For this letting-be and, with it, the truth as un-hiddenness presuppose the mystery, namely, the concealing of what is hidden as a whole. Once again, absorbed with what is at any moment apparent, accessible, and manipulable, human beings are prone to forget the mystery which, in turn, leaves them to their own devices 9: ff.

Freedom is distinctively human. Buy now. Delivery included to Finland. Lucas Thorpe Paperback 20 Nov English. Includes delivery to Finland. Check for new and used marketplace copies. The Kant Dictionary is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the world of Immanuel Kant, one of the most important and influential thinkers in the history of philosophy.