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The ruins he found there were likely Classic or post-Classic Mayan, from between C. They needed Formative period sites, dating from about B.
In May , Ferguson arrived in Chiapas to lend a hand. To jump-start the search, Ferguson chartered a small plane, and he and Sorenson flew over the lush lowlands of central Chiapas. Back on the ground, Ferguson and Sorenson set out by jeep for a day survey to see what else they could find.
But his own archaeological training paid off, and at some sites he was able to identify the polished, monochrome pottery and hand-sculpted, irregular human figurines of the Formative period, so different from the intricate but standardized figurines the Classic Maya had made from molds. In all, Sorenson and Ferguson surveyed 22 sites on that journey and collected an astounding number of Formative artifacts.
Eventually, archaeologists reported that the site was settled around B.
Stela 5 from Izapa in Mexico—an early site first extensively excavated by New World Archaeological Foundation archaeologists—shows a mythical tree; some Mormons believe it reflects a prophetic dream from the Book of Mormon. Then, in the early s, NWAF archaeologists became the first to extensively excavate at Izapa, near the Chiapas coast and the Guatemalan border.
They were drawn to the site in part because of a monument that apparently depicts a myth involving a tree; Ferguson's friend and founder of BYU's archaeology department, M. Wells Jakeman, argued that the carving shows visions received in a dream by the Mormon prophet Lehi. NWAF archaeologists, some of whom were Mormon, later soundly rebuffed that interpretation.
But Izapa turned out to be a key site in the Soconusco, the Pacific coast region from which every Mesoamerican political power, from the Olmec in B. NWAF spearheaded excavations throughout this region. Pottery finds and dates from Izapa and elsewhere formed the basis of the ceramic chronologies for the Formative period that are still used by every archaeologist working in central and coastal Chiapas today. But even as NWAF grew in scientific stature, and was finally assured continued existence when BYU took it over in , Ferguson was quietly becoming frustrated.
The smoking gun he had been certain he would find—Egyptian or Hebrew script—proved elusive. He once had promised that archaeological evidence for the Book of Mormon would be found within 10 years of NWAF starting excavations. But in he wrote, "My number one goal of establishing that Christ appeared in Mexico following the crucifixion will never be achieved until significant ancient manuscript discoveries are made. I hope it happens during our lifetimes. When an ancient manuscript discovery did come, however, it was from a different quarter of the world—and it shook Ferguson's faith to its core.
In the summer of , Joseph Smith had received a curious visitor in Kirtland, Ohio, then the headquarters of his burgeoning LDS church: a traveling showman, with four Egyptian mummies and some hieroglyphic texts in tow. The church bought the mummies and texts, and Smith said he translated the hieroglyphics, resulting in the Book of Abraham, which lays out Smith's cosmic vision of the afterlife.
Although Egyptian hieroglyphics had been deciphered in France in with the help of the Rosetta Stone, the news had barely reached U. As Smith and his followers moved around the Midwest, often fleeing angry mobs, they carried the mummies and papyri with them. After Smith's death at the hands of one of those mobs in Nauvoo, Illinois, they were sold by his family.
The fate of the mummies remains a mystery. The professor realized he was looking at the Book of Abraham papyri, and the documents were returned to the Mormon church. I must conclude that Joseph Smith had not the remotest skill in things Egyptian-hieroglyphics. Because the Red Army did not occupy either Greece or Turkey, Truman saw an opportunity to encourage liberty in the two countries by strengthening domestic conditions and preventing Soviet intervention on behalf of the local communists. The assertion of the Truman Doctrine was truly historic—the first time since the Monroe Doctrine of that an American president had explicitly defined a principle of foreign policy and put the world on notice.
In the absence of an effective United Nations, the president said, America was the one nation capable of establishing and maintaining peace. The international situation, he said, was at a critical juncture. While political and economic means were preferred, military strength was also needed to foster the political and economic stability of threatened countries. The Truman Doctrine was a primary building block of containment. The president sounded themes that endured throughout his and successive administrations.
Faced with a war unlike any previous one, Truman laid the groundwork for a policy of peace through strength. Against the backdrop of postwar domestic needs and wants, he had to educate the American people and persuade congressional leaders that decisive U. Between and , he reached three conclusions regarding global politics:. President Truman and his administration proceeded to build on this political foundation.
The impending economic collapse of Britain, France, and most of Western Europe in the winter of and the spring of led the United States to take action in the economic sphere in the form of the Marshall Plan. NSC 68 added an international dimension to the concept of peace through political, economic, and military strength. But he always looked for ways to encourage the Kremlin to move in a new direction. As a preliminary, of course, we have to induce the Soviets to agree to some form of inspection, in order that both sides may be confident that treaties are being executed faithfully.
In the meantime, and pending some advance in this direction, we must stay strong, particularly in that type of power that the Russians are compelled to respect.
Task forces studied and made recommendations regarding three possible strategies:. The latter two options were favored by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who counseled the use of the threat of nuclear weapons to counter Soviet military force. Eisenhower rejected liberation as too aggressive and the policy of containment as he understood it as too passive, selecting instead deterrence, with an emphasis on air and sea power. As the defense analysts James Jay Carafano and Paul Rosenzweig have observed, Eisenhower built his Cold War foreign policy, largely based on the policy of containment, on four pillars:.
The Eisenhower-Dulles New Look was not, as some have charged, a policy with only two options—the use of local forces or nuclear threats. Covert means were used to help overthrow the pro-Marxist regime of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala in , economic pressures were exerted in the Suez Crisis of , and U. Marines were used in Lebanon in The U.
During the Eisenhower years, the United States constructed a powerful ring of alliances and treaties around the communist empire in order to uphold its policy of containment. While George Kennan argued that communist ideology was an instrument not a determinant of Soviet policy, Dulles argued the opposite. The Soviet objective, Dulles said flatly, was global state socialism. The common thread running through all the elements of the Eisenhower strategy—nuclear deterrence, alliances, psychological warfare, covert action, and negotiations—was a relatively low cost and an emphasis on retaining the initiative.
The most visible and contentious problem was how to deal with the outspoken, unpredictable Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin. The prospect in of a united and expansionist communism, led by the Soviet Union and Communist China, led the Truman administration to draft and adopt the most important national security document of the Cold War— National Security Council Report In late January , Truman requested an in-depth report on the continuing world crisis.
Of special concern to the president was the Soviet explosion of an atomic bomb, which the administration had not expected until mid at the earliest. Truman quickly decided that the United States should proceed with the development of a hydrogen bomb. He defined the key components of American military strength as a modernized and trained conventional capacity and a nuclear edge over the communists. NSC presented Truman with a comprehensive plan of action to meet the Soviet challenge. In sharp contrast, the Kremlin is driven by the desire to achieve absolute power and extend it over the nonSoviet world.
Communist ideology requires the enslavement not the fostering of the individual. The document outlines a wide-ranging strategy to meet communist imperialism. The primary goal is to maintain a strong free world—politically, morally, economically, and militarily—and to frustrate the Soviet design and bring about its internal change. The Truman administration saw Soviet intentions and capabilities as interlaced. Had Truman gauged capabilities with no reference to ideology and intentions, he might have given way to the Soviets in Berlin rather than ordering the airlift. The Iron Curtain surrounding the satellite nations holds together the Soviet empire.
The document looks to the independence of nationalities as a natural and potent threat to communism. At the same time, it leaves open the possibility of U. It was the definitive statement of the U. Through the treaty, member states promised to defend any member that may be attacked by an outside force, with the unified command under a leader of the Soviet Union. The Warsaw Pact ensured that most European nations were aligned in one of two opposing camps and formalized the political divide in Europe that became prevalent World War II. The Soviet leaders were very apprehensive about this, especially with WWI and WWII still fresh in mind and decided to get security measures in place in the shape of a political and military alliance.
The pact however only lasted until , when the Soviet Union came to an end. On October 22, , five thousand students crammed into a hall in Budapest and approved a manifesto that, among other things, called for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary, free elections, freedom of association, and economic reform. Along with eight thousand other political prisoners, Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty was released from the prison in which he had been kept in solitary confinement.
Hungarian soldiers deserted in droves and gave their weapons to the revolutionaries. But then Soviet tanks and troops rolled back into the city in the first days of November to crush the Hungarian Revolution, brutally crushing the revolution and killing an estimated two thousand people. Nearly fifteen thousand were wounded. According to the authoritative Black Book of Communism , thirty-five thousand people were arrested, twenty-two thousand jailed, and two hundred executed. More than two hundred thousand Hungarians fled the country, many of them to America. Conservatives charged that the Eisenhower administration, after encouraging resistance if not revolution, failed to help the Hungarian freedom fighters.
In some of its broadcasts, Radio Free Europe, financed by the U. There were several reasons why America did not act in Hungary:. Outwardly unsuccessful, the Hungarian Revolution showed that communism in Eastern Europe was weaker than anyone, including the communists, realized. An empire viewed by many in the West as invincible was exposed as vulnerable. He would represent the Air Force because White was out of town.
LeMay noticed that there was something odd about the meeting right from the start. To begin with, there was a civilian in the room who pushed aside a curtain to reveal landing areas for a military engagement on the coast of Cuba. LeMay had been told absolutely nothing about the operation until that moment. All eyes turned to him when the civilian, who worked for the CIA, asked which of the three sites would provide the best landing area for planes. LeMay explained that he was completely in the dark and needed more information before he would hazard a guess.
He asked how many troops would be involved in the landing. The answer, that there would be , dumbfounded him. There was no way, he told them, that an operation would succeed with so few troops. The briefer cut him short. Over the next month, LeMay tried unsuccessfully to get information about the impending invasion. Then on April 16 he stood in for White—again out of town—at another meeting. Just one day before the planned invasion, he finally learned some of the basics of the plan.
Cuban exiles had been trained as an invasion force by the CIA and former U. The exiles would land in Cuba with the aid of old World War II bombers with Cuban markings and try to instigate a counterrevolution. It was an intricate plan that depended on every phase working perfectly. But the Secretary of Defense was not present at the meeting.
LeMay did not mince words. LeMay explained that without air support, the landing forces were doomed. Gilpatric responded with a shrug. The entire operation went against everything LeMay had learned in his thirty-three years of experience. In any military operation, especially one of this significance, a plan cannot depend on every step going right.
Most steps do not go right and a great deal of padding must be built in to compensate for those unforeseen problems.
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It went back to the LeMay doctrine—hitting an enemy with everything you had at your disposal if you have already come to the conclusion that a military engagement is your only option. Use everything, so there is no chance of failure. Limited, half-hearted endeavors are doomed. The Bay of Pigs invasion turned out to be a disaster for the Kennedy administration. Kennedy realized it too late. The men were either killed or taken prisoner.
All of this made Kennedy look weak and inexperienced. A short time later, Kennedy went out to a golf course with his old friend, Charles Bartlett, a journalist. This was not quite true. Kennedy put the blame squarely on the CIA and on himself for going along with the ill-conceived plan. The incident forced Kennedy to grow in office. Although his relationship with the military did suffer, the problems between Kennedy and the Pentagon predated the Bay of Pigs Invasion. According to his chief aid and speechwriter, Ted Sorensen, Kennedy was unawed by Generals.
LeMay was especially incensed when McNamara brought in a group of brilliant, young statisticians as an additional civilian buffer between the ranks of professional military advisers and the White House. They became known as the Defense Intellectuals. This ran against his personality—as LeMay approached almost everything in his life with a feeling of self-doubt, he was actually surprised when things worked out well. Here he saw the opposite—inexperienced people coming in absolutely sure of themselves and ultimately making the wrong decisions with terrible consequences. On 14th October a US spy plane flying over Cuba reported the installation of Russian nuclear missile bases.
The picture left is one of those taken from the spy plane and clearly shows missile transporter trailers and tents where fuelling and maintenance took place. There is no good evidence that Chernobyl radiation killed a baby nor that it caused any increase in birth defects. Indeed, the only public health impact beyond the deaths of the first responders was 20, documented cases of thyroid cancer in those aged under 18 at the time of the accident.
Since thyroid cancer has a mortality rate of just one percent, that means the expected deaths from thyroid cancers caused by Chernobyl will be 50 to over an year lifespan. In episode one, high doses of radiation make workers bleed, and in episode two, a nurse who merely touches a firefighter sees her hand turn bright red, as though burned.
NPR’s Book Concierge
Neither thing occurred or is possible. It is now known as the "Bridge of Death.
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In reality, 80 percent of those with ARS survived. There is a human cost to these misrepresentations. The notion that people exposed to radiation are contagious was used to terrify, stigmatize, and isolate people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, Chernobyl, and again in Fukushima. Women in the areas that received low levels of radiation from Chernobyl terminated , to , pregnancies in a panic, and those who were exposed to Chernobyl radiation were four times more likely to report anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
If it were we would all be dead since we are every moment being shot by radiation bullets. And some of the people who are exposed to the most bullets, such as residents of Colorado, actually live longer. What starts in episode one as a bullet evolves through the mini-series into a weapon. Until the entire continent is dead? The fear being conjured is, obviously, of nuclear war.
Hollywood borrowed the misrepresentation of melting uranium fuel as an exploding nuclear bomb from anti-nuclear leaders like Ralph Nader, who in claimed, "A nuclear accident could wipe out Cleveland and the survivors would envy the dead. In reality, Chernobyl proves why nuclear is the safest way to make electricity. In the worst nuclear power accidents, relatively small amounts of particulate matter escape, harming only a handful of people.
During the rest of the time, nuclear plants are reducing exposure to air pollution, by replacing fossil fuels and biomass.